Wood Structure Framing, or light-frame construction, is the assembly of dimensional lumber or engineered wood lumber, which is regularly spaced and fastened together with nails to create floor, wall, and roof assemblies. Wood is the most traditional and natural material used within the construction industry, making it one of the most viable structural framing materials. Wood Structure Framing systems are members assembled from wood. This structural framing system consists of studded walls, floor joists, and other wooden components to create a structural frame. Finished surfaces are then attached to the wooden frame. The loads travel through the floor joists, the studded wall, and then down into the foundation. The principal method of design for wood-framed construction has historically been allowable stress design.
Wood Structure Framing is limited to residential construction and small commercial buildings because of the material itself. Wood has a natural superior strength to weight ratio; however, it does not have the spanning ability or loading capacity to withstand tremendous loads such as a warehouse. Wood Structure Framing members can be prefabricated off-site. This allows for quick and practical construction, which will ultimately drive down labor costs. However, a point to consider is that wood framing has terrible resistance to fire and blast loads. Furthermore, the usage in a storage facility would be very unwise.
Floor, wall, roof, and stair constructions are made up of specific dimensional wood components, similar to those of a skeleton. These components are attached to form the structure and allow the interior spaces to function as desired. The following list identifies and describes each element within each type of assembly.
Floor frames distribute live, dead, and other structural loads across the building to load-bearing walls or the foundation.
Wall frames can be used to create load-bearing or non-load-bearing walls. Load-bearing walls are structural walls that carry and transmit loads from above to floor frames below. Non-load bearing walls serve no structural function. Traditional roof frames balance roof loads across the building to load-bearing walls.
Modern roof frames can be made with roof trusses. A roof truss is a manufactured, engineered wood assembly that includes diagonal top chords, a horizontal bottom chord, and vertical or diagonal webs or braces between the top and bottom chords. Each adjacent member is face combined or joined with metal toothed plates or gussets. Stair frames generate openings that allow for pedestrian travel from floor to floor. The stair frame carries dynamic loads to outside walls or to vertical studs that support the stair frame.
Wood members are cut and attached to create floors, walls, and the roof of a structure according to the set of framing documents and local building codes. Since the 1830s, two wood framing methods have been used to build a network: balloon framing and platform framing. Platform framing is today’s favored method of constructing wood-framed buildings. Same as balloon framing, platform framing is built upon a foundation. This method initially commenced with a floor frame attached to a foundation, and walls are elevated and fastened to the floor frame. Using this repetitive pattern, a carpenter will elevate the first and second floors and any other floors after that. Roof rafters and ceiling joists or trusses are then joined to the top-story walls to form the roof.
Each system can be complex to design as a whole; therefore, simple analysis usually focuses on the individual elements that constitute the system. In some cases, “system effects” may be considered in simplified form and applied to the design of individual components that comprise specifically defined plans. Structural features that make up a residential structural system include bending members, columns, combined bending and axially loaded members, sheathing, diaphragm, and connections.
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